Monday, March 9, 2020

Macro-economics Essays - Macroeconomics, Economy, Economics

Macro-economics Essays - Macroeconomics, Economy, Economics Macro-economics Macro-economics GDP measure Expenditure approach Weakness of using GDP to measure wellbeing CPI Measure and its problem Unemployment Definition friction, structural and cyclical unemployment Inflation In the long run, the increase in MS leads to inflation Cost: Shoe leather cost, menu cost and tax distortion AD-AS Shape of AD and AS curves Monetary policy Open market operation Contractionary and expansionary monetary policy Draw graph to explain how monetary policy helps with inflation recession Fiscal policy Definition Instruments graphing Multiplier effect and crowding-out effect For graphing question, please draw graph clearly and label properly, and give brief explanation Graphing, labeling and explanations all carry marks. Graphing to illustrate monetary policy (expansionary and contractionary) Chinas central banktightened monetary policy by raising the interest rates it charges in open-market operations and on funds lent via its Standing Lending Facility. What type of monetary policy did Chinas central bank implement (expansionary or contractionary monetary policy)? What will be the impact on the economy, all else being equal? Use graph to illustrate. MS2 Money supply, MS A D2 Y1 Y2 P2 Money demand at price level P AD1 Quantity of money 0 Interest rate r2 r1 (a) The money market (b) The aggregate-demand curve Quantity of output 0 Price level 3. ... which decreases the quantity of goods and services demanded at a given price level. 2. ... the equilibrium interest rate Increases... 1. When the RBA Decrease the money supply ... P1style.visibilitystyle.visibilitystyle.visibilitystyle.visibilitystyle.visibilitystyle.visibilitystyle.visibilitystyle.visibilitystyle.visibilitystyle.visibilitystyle.visibilitystyle.visibilitystyle.visibilitystyle.visibilitystyle.visibility Graphing to illustrate fiscal policy The above-mentioned moves underscore the leaderships determination to push up funding costs of short-term tenors to rein in leverage andswitchto the combination of less monetary stimulus and more fiscal support, after earlier easing fueled bubbles in bonds and the property market. What types of fiscal support can the government give? Use graph to illustrate its impact. Quantity of output Price level 0 Aggregate demand, AD1 Increase government purchase or reduce tax rate AD2 7style.visibilitystyle.visibilitystyle.visibility Short answer question examples Explain shoe leather cost. It refers to the cost of converting between cash and other assets during high inflation. Explain interest rate effect that is used to explain the downward sloping curve of AD A lower price level reduces the interest rate, which encourages greater spending on investment goods. This increase in investment spending means a larger quantity of goods and services demanded. Explain sticky wage theory Nominal wages are slow to adjust, or are sticky in the short run. Wages do not adjust immediately to a fall in the price level. A lower price level makes employment and production less profitable. This induces firms to reduce the quantity of goods and services supplied. Is unemployment rate a perfect measure for unemployment? Justify your answer. It is not perfect measure because at least two groups of people cannot be accurately classified. Some people may claim to be unemployed in order to receive financial assistance, even though they arent truly looking for jobs. They are mistakenly classified as unemployed. Discouraged workers, people who would like to work but have given up looking for jobs after unsuccessful search, dont show up in unemployment statistics.

Friday, February 21, 2020

Position paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Position paper - Essay Example This, in spite of the fact that for the greater majority, or about four billion people, and certainly for those living in most of the developed world, the economic systems in place have resulted in improving incomes and a good measure of financial prosperity. The impact of the economic collapse in the failed economies extend beyond incomes, and impact the very sustainability of their entire social fabrics. The strain on the social systems is evident in what Collier sees as poverty traps. There are the civil wars, for one, that are really more about young people wanting change in order to improve their financial lots in life. There are the circumstances thrust upon people due to their location in certain geographies, where countries have the bad luck of being located amidst a generally â€Å"bad† neighborhood. Even natural resources in large quantities, such as oil and minerals, are seen as poverty traps too, because they breed conflicts. Finally, a fourth poverty trap is wides pread corruption brought about by immature political systems and general bad governance structures. These are confluence factors that all heighten the forces that derail the bad luck countries on skid row, so to speak, and these act like powerful downward forces that prevent these countries from escaping a terminal vortex of misery. Externally the forces of globalization and the imposition of global free markets, instead of helping these countries move up, are actually driving them to poverty even more, because the effect of such forces is to funnel growth and development even farther away from the impoverished billion and toward the developed world, which has the infrastructure and the inertia, as well as the resources, to continue to benefit from the existing order, while the unlucky billion continue to wallow in a vortex of poverty. Collier asserts that there are no easy answers, and that solutions lie sometimes in armed interventions, as well as in the intervention and policing of powerful organizations such as the European Union in order to bring about lasting economic and democratic reforms to the impoverished. This paper takes the position that indeed, the problem for the bottom billion is one that is characterized by a high degree of complexity, and the solutions are there, but executed badly Collier; The Observer; Goodreads; Riedel 519). Part of the problem with execution is that there are few organizations with the clout and the wherewithal to enforce changes and to see through them in such a way as to effect lasting structural changes (Collier 1-13; The Observer; Goodreads; Riedel 519). Part of the problem of execution too is that the tools have so far been misunderstood, and used in a bad way, and again these issues go back to the general complex nature of the problem and the very massive resources and effort needed to be used in a sustained manner in order to make the proper changes to rescue the downtrodden billion. Moreover, the incentives for h elping the poorest of the poor are not apparent on the surface, because as it is those who are profiting from the global economic order are comfortably living without the participation of the poorest. These things take long-range planning and thinking, and the concerted effort and goodwill of those who are in the developed world. Apart from all this, the paper also makes the case for the economic viability of making everyone on the planet, including the bottom billion, ride the economic boat to prosperity. The poorest, when they

Wednesday, February 5, 2020

The Apostle Paul and his Pastoral Epistles Essay - 1

The Apostle Paul and his Pastoral Epistles - Essay Example Though Titus is not mentioned in the book of acts, he and Timothy were Paul’s Spiritual children who he was mentoring for Pastoral ministry, with Titus being mentioned in the book of Galatians 2:1 for the first time (Christ Lutheran Church of the Deaf). Paul wrote the three epistles, known as pastoral letters to provide instructions to his two sons pertaining to their pastoral duties and to warn them about false teachings and occult practices which could easily have affected the churches they were pastoring. Both Timothy and Titus were young and Paul as their mentor also wished to encourage them, like he tells Timothy not to let anyone despise him because of his youth but to be an example 1 Tim 4:12. Paul was imprisoned twice in his life in Rome, in 60-63A.D and in 67-68A.D (NewApologia). He wrote 1Timothy during his first imprisonment, wrote Titus upon his release and 2 Timothy during his second imprisonment, after which he was killed by beheading. The letters contained instructions for ministry to Timothy and Titus, and thus he was able to continue with his work even while in prison. Timothy had been a companion of Paul in his missionary journeys and now was serving God in Ephesus. The different vocabulary and writing style from other Pauline letters should be understood from the view point that their theme is common, as they are aimed mostly to address the issue of Pastoral care and that is why between them they are very similar. Linguistic evidence to prove that they were not written by Paul could be countered by the fact that there is much that is not known pertaining to the conditions of production of the three epistles and also the other Pauline letters (Smith). There is also general concurrence that the Pastoral letters do not provide an adequate sample by which to make comparisons with the other Pauline letters. The differences are not also as great

Tuesday, January 28, 2020

Different Social Ecological Perspectives Sociology Essay

Different Social Ecological Perspectives Sociology Essay Social ecological perspective is a discipline which tries to look into various results and correlation of social factors in the environment. It also examines the interaction among people within a certain natural environment and the challenges on the important affordances for knowledge which are provided by the very environment. Generally it provides the insight on how people in a certain environment influence one another in a way (Naess, 1989). This way, ecology is both reactive and creative; it also makes people contemplate on the changes within the system and around the environment. Social ecological systems go beyond an individual, since the world we live in have a greater impact on how we live. Bronfenbrenner (1979) argues that it is not only the environment which affects the person directly, but there are some other layers factors. According to his research which basically began with thesis equations Bronfenbrenner states that behavior depends on the environment and the person. Bronfenbrenner (1979) also considered; community, individual, culture and environment as nestled factors. This is clearly illustrated in Charles dawn book on web of life. There are several outcomes which results from cross-level influences and interactions between and within levels that social ecology perspectives address. Interactions are parallels or discontinuities and cross-level effects according to (Rousseau House 1994). Therefore this paper is going to provide a comprehensive overview on the theoretical concepts and constructs relating to social ecological perspectives, review on discrimination and inequality in relationship to this topic and then conclude by highlighting on how to achieve a better social perspective. Levels of influence comprises of; Individual, interpersonal, organizational, community and public policies. The social ecological perspective looks into correlated relationship which occurs between individual and environment they live in. In individual levels people are mandated to implement and enhance the lifestyle fluctuations to minimize risk and have better health. Family history, personal attitudes, beliefs all contribute to individual influence. They can be eliminated by encouraging good beliefs, behavior and attitude. Individuals who habitually engage In many unhealthy and dangerous behavior, for example intake of saturated fats, irregular sleep, lack of frequent physical exercises, alcoholism, high level of frequent stresses, live unhealthy lifestyles which can be controlled at individual level. The change of single pattern of unhealthy behavior can be modified. This can be archived through social influence patters like modification of an individuals behavior, attitude and thoughts in terms of actions and the way others feel. Some of the ways in which to achieve social influence is; cognitive change where there is modification of individuals opinions and how he/she feels. Behavior modification entails individ uals change on how he or she views the surrounding and effective modification with a shift with ones assessment of entities. Interpersonal levels are a collection factors which raises risk as a result of relationship with family, peers and intimate partners. These are seen to modify behavior and experiences. These can be eliminated by promoting peer programs that educate on equality, trust and mutual respect among others. These interpersonal attributes are strong on how an individual perceives oneself. These qualities and factors can be learned, like in membership of a group, but many are ingrained (e.g., ethnicity, gender). In the interpersonal sphere, there are also many components of the individual, including psychological and cognitive factors, like personality, knowledge and beliefs (Gregson, 2001). Gregson continues by stating that; The individual in his or her own micro system is constantly shaped, not only by the environment, but by any encounter or other individual they come in contact with. This shaping is well explored in child development, as it would be unreasonable to believe a child is solely a product of the societal environment. There are multiple, simultaneous influences in child behavior and learning including culture, school, teacher, parental support and education level, involvement in extracurricular activities, etc. Examples of Microsystems outside the self also include groups of friends, family, unorganized athletics, or social clubs (Gregson, 2001) The community level factor depends on an individuals experiences and how he/she interacts with community in general involves social environment for example a neighborhood, schools and work places. This can be promoted through social and norm campaigns based on trust, respect among others. A clear illustration is overweight and obesity where people normally believe that it is an individuals responsibility which is correct to some degree (David, 2001). The community also plays a crucial role for example where work places, schools food stores or restaurants do not provide healthy food options, in the neighborhood and where there are no fields for jogging, places for exercises, safe and accessible facilities for children to play, no proper healthy facilities and where physical education is not offered in school. All this are community responsibilities. According to David (2001) the community can promote healthy behavior through implementation of policies and environmental factors such as healthy cafeteria meals, Incentives for bicycles and pedestrian commuters, smoke free workplaces, sidewalks and bike paths, insurance cover for preventive services like tobacco cessation and work site wellness programs. These can lower the risks of diseases like stroke, diabetes, cancer and other heart diseases. The barriers to healthy behaviors are interwoven among the community in general. When these barriers are eliminated or lowered, behavior change will be achieved. Behavior change will then become more sustainable, this is according to James (2003). According to Gregson (2001) on the other hand these aspects can be rules, policies, and acceptable business etiquette within a more formal organization. He further argues that there are some organizations that foster entirely different atmospheres than other corporations giving an example of Google, where employees may wear pajamas to the office. The organizational component is especially influential with younger, more impressiona ble employees, as it helps to shape the ethics and expectations of a typical organization for these individuals. Examples include schools, companies, churches, and sports teams (Bronfenbrenner, 1979). Bronfenbrenner also claimed that the richer the medium for communication in this system, the more influential it is on the micro system. Societal levels are larger things that influence individual behavior, they include; religion, gender, societal norms, cultural beliefs and societal policies. This can be prevented by working in conjunction with social bodies associated with policies, mutual respect, social norms, gender equality, mutual respect, trust, and foster intimate relationship. These influences are more easily seen than the other factors, mainly due to the magnitude of the impact. Examples of significant intercultural effects include Communism, Western culture, Military, Islam, and Christianity. For instance, the macro system of Communism is a Marxist philosophy that believes that wealth should be shared in the macro system. A Communist country, such as Cuba (exo), governs and regulates the environment within which corporations (meso) and society or individuals (micro) exist. Media plays a significant role on all levels, as it communicates information and assists in the development of expectations for all individuals in the respective culture (Bronfenbrenner 1979) The best way of achieving healthy behavior is put in to consideration of factors at all level which are; interpersonal, organizational, individual, public and individual. By so doing, behavior change will be implemented and sustained. In the corporate scenario a lot of disagreements are understandable others while others are explicit. In these scenarios there are stakeholders who are workers, clients, shareholders and managers who normally raise conflicts. Interactive and cross-level consequences while observing from a different angle are seen, this is because a lot of companies think they only have the duty of creating monetary value for the stakeholders whilst upholding responsibilities to their customers. In some organizations, it is usually hard to tell events where devotion is taken too far towards owners and workers at the expense of the clients. Directions of influence Isomorphisms are parallels that cause impact on one level then the resulting impact affects other levels (Rinderle 2006). People carrying out Researcher on isomorphic models are required to see an equal impact on both the magnitude and direction in cases where at least one cause changes in level shifts. Discontinuities are basically antonyms of isomorphism. They cause effect one level or group hence producing an unequal, potentially in the opposite direction, they cause impact on at least one or more groups. Top-down effects are most prominent of any social ecological component, according to5 (MCLeroy 1996) the environmental outcomes shapes the persons behavior. The nested factors are basics which react while in crisis situations (Rinderle 2006). OK-FIRST is a program that alienates people on how to help others respond to whether related dangers in a better way (Oetz 2006). Historical interactions also shape peoples conflict behavior. This is clearly illustrated in several situations as observed in the many conflicts of the society. Media also plays an important role in strengthening these issues. Bottom-up effects illustrate how people or society affect the upper levels, as in how people form coalitions to achieve their goals 7(Rinderle 2006). There are also effects on cultures as a result of global corporations existence in some countries. For example, china has raised the accessibility of news to reach a larger audience in a Communist nation. 8 Guerrero (2006) shows emotions are as a result of feelings which includes anger, jealousy, greed, guilt among others and the feelings affects the events likely to happen. Interactive effects are interdependent variables and taking place simultaneously in many groups 10(Rousseau House 1994). For example in Italy where culturally different workgroups, conflicts among group members may occur. This deters relationship impacts in accomplishing the goal of group members for an organization and learning at the personal level. Thus technology also plays an important role in community, cultures, interpersonal conflict and organization (Rousseau House 1994). Political conflict The role of politics is in the making up of decisions. Politics encompasses the appeasing of all stakeholders towards realizing an ultimate objective, decision may be required of an individual, organization, community, or country. A decision a congressman makes affects anyone in his or her jurisdiction. If one makes decision not to vote for the President of the United States, one has given oneself no voice in the 15election (Ungar, 2002). If a lot other people decide not to put in their efforts to vote, they would have unintentionally permitted a greater part of others to carry the day on their behalf. Internationally if the administration of a country like America decides to inhabit another nation say in the Middle East, this will not only have an influence on the administration of that country but it will also have an effect on American soldiers and the whole environment where they come from. Another thing is that when America uses funds on conflicts that are political in nature, t he value of the U.S. currency may be negatively affected. This shows that many cross-level and interactive consequences of a decision can arise. An example of this is like the act of a terrorist could possibly interrupt with the lives of soldiers, the lives of people close to them and the country at large. Economics Basically, from a top-down view point, the physical environment determines a considerable extend to the lifestyle of a person and the country as whole. If the area is hilly or very dry and there is limited land for agricultural activities, the nation generally will not grow compared to other countries. The general, human habits, cultural characteristics and economics are shaped by geography and output is determined by natural resources, technology and human resources. Entrepreneurial mind has an impact on technology. These indicates that there exits bottom-up effects on economics. Health Peoples efforts to modify their own healthy practices are mostly dictated by social, economic and cultural setbacks. Poor educational status, time and money, energy and chronic exposure to neighborhood violent and proximity to friends and family members who often exhibit healthy threatening behavior are some of situation factors that can affect peoples best efforts that and intentions to improve their health practices. There are several ecological variables that can improve or stop danger to individuals healthy physically. To eliminate diseases, an individual should keep off from an environment in which they may be more exposed to virus or where there body defense system would be compromised. This also entails possibly avoiding workgroup if they are breathing or inhalation dangers or keeping off from a sick work mate. Some environments are good for health benefits. Staying around people who are physically fit will encourage you to be active, good diet and physical exercises in general. The state putting a ban on saturated fats manufacture may add value to top-down effect on individuals health in a country. Efforts to persuade a person to adopt health practices can be unfruitful if the person is not ready to embrace the suggested behavior. This can also be limited by exposure to environmental toxins and safety hazards (Haekel, 2003). The current research studied predictors of health-related social influence tactic use in close relationships. According to the social ecological perspective, predictors were grouped as reflecting characteristics of the agent of social influence, characteristics of the target of social influence, characteristics of the agent and targets relationship, and characteristics of the social influence situation. One hundred and nine spouses reported on situations in which each partner was attempting to influence his or her spouse to change a health-related behavior. Using the actor-partner interdependence analysis approach, results revealed only actor effects for characteristics of the agent, primarily partner effects for characteristics of the target, and both acto r and partner effects for characteristics of the situation when predicting health-related tactic use. Effects for relationship characteristics only emerged in interactions with respondent sex. These results indicate that social influence in marriage involves reciprocity and interdependence. Physical and social environment can serve as a media for disease transmit ion; waterborne and airborne diseases. The environment can also act as a stressor exerting detrimental effects on peoples mood, performance and physiology as a result of their exposure to uncontrollable demands such as noise, political upheaval or interpersonal relationship. The environment can act as source of safety or danger; residing in an area contaminated by chemicals, geographically unsafe, or socially violent.tne environment can also serve as an enabler of healthier behavior exemplified by inhalation of safety devices in motor vehicles, proximity of physical fitness devices to work place or home and exposure to interpersonal modeling or cultural practices that foster health behavior. The environment can act as provider of health resources such effective communication sanitation systems, public health services and legislation ensuring citizens access to health insurance and primary care. Risk communication In event of a natural disaster or hazard, there are ways of ensuring that people who are affected are safe. SEM can be required in helping one analyze when information and receivers and those involved. These conditions are environmental influences which are far reaching. The persons level of education, understanding, and privileged circumstances may determine the kind of information the person receives and the mediums through which the information is conveyed. If the information received is altered through the mode of communication, there would be a bottom-up effect on the people involved. In general MCLeroy (1996) points out that: The social perspectives try to, eliminate obstacles on healthy risks, generate conditions favorable for individuals well being plus all people around, creates a positive reception on how people be at vary, facilitates individuals interdependence, coexistence and interrelationships that are found among other individuals and the society as a whole, they try to show in which way; broader physical, social, political, economical, ethnical and cultural context and histories influence the ways in which individuals( and other people) make meaning out of observation and experience and it embraces the sense of care and concern for others (MCLeroy 1996). Other things that social perspectives accomplish are; they help in the recognition of competitive interests, access to resources and relationship with authority which is seen to manipulate peoples abilities, societies and countries to gain stability. These perspectives also assist in the reflection of self and thinking critically that eventually ends in positive actions, encourages social justice, helps learners to counter the ever shifting world, and enables youthful people to look past their selves while working towards expectations and a future encouraging people in taking necessary actions where appropriate in order to develop better healthy practices. Bullying and Victimization The idea of a multiple society influencing an entity is not a new concept. In fact much has been researched on the interplay between the individual, family, peer group, school, community and culture. This reciprocal interplay between individuals involved in the bully/victim continuum can be clearly illustrated, the social ecological perspective can be applied to the conceptualization of bullying behavior. According to Dolls (2001), in a nut shell, bullying does not occur in isolation. This phenomena is encouraged/or incited as a result of complex relationship between the individual, family, peer group, school community and culture. The individual is the centre of his/her social ecology. The individual involved ion bullying may be involved as a bully, bully victim, victim or by stander. Individual factors will influence participation in bullying. Ecological systems theory purports that all individuals are part of the interrelated systems that locate an individual at the centre and move out of the centre to include all the systems that affect the individuall Bronfenbrenner (1977). According to his theory, a child is inseparable part of social network comprising of four interrelated systems: Microsystems, mesosystems, exosystems and Microsystems. The child is at the centre of and actively involved with this interplay of systems. The micro system involves the childs relationship with one system; home, classroom or playground. The Microsystems depicts he the childs immediate interaction with others, and including others reaction towards bullying behavior. This conceptualization of Microsystems also includes the status of the child along the bully/victim continuum. Thus the bully, bully victim, victim or bystander interact with others in his or her social environment, and this interaction either exacerbates or mitigate bullying and/or victimization behavior. The mesosystem includes the interrelationship between system in the childs life; home and school. The mesosystems depicts the congruence between two or more environments such as congruence between and home and school in regard to bullying behavior. The exosystems includes influences from other context, such as the effects of a schools district anti bully policy or parental i nvolvement in the school system. Finally, the macro system is the influence of cultural mores, such as societal attitude towards bullying behavior. The social ecology that encompasses the daily life of youth dictates the engagement and non engagement in bullying and/or victimization behaviors. 19Simons (2000) because individual are affected by their surroundings, it logically follows that intervention the environment in which youth function. Interventions that do not follow the target multiple environments in which youth exists are likely to be fewer effectives than interventions that address social ecology. This assertion is related to consistent findings that the youth who are involved in aggressive behavior experience problems in multiple area including the family, peer group, school, and community. It is important to determine whether or not an intervention is effective in preventing and /or eliminating bullying behavior. Thus assessment of bullying phenomena must utilize multiple methods of assessments, use multiple informants and include assessments across the context. While this can be a daunting task, best practices demands that we asses all the social ecological if we are to accurately determine the effects bullying prevention and intervention programming. An example of this type of best practice is reflected in schema proposed and implemented by Simons (2000) these studies state that data should be collected across all settings (home, school, community, laboratory and others), by multiple informants, observers, children peers, parents, teachers and using multiple methods home observations, lab tasks, classroom, playground questionnaires, records among others. Conclusion We can conclude that a better social perspective can be achieved by putting into consideration of factors at all level which are; interpersonal, organizational, public and individual. Behavior modification entails individuals change on how he or she views the surrounding and effective modification with a shift with ones assessment of entities. By so doing, behavior change will be implemented and sustained.

Monday, January 20, 2020

Impact Of Workplace Environment On Employee Retention Essay -- Busines

As employee satisfaction plays a vital role in the success of an organization. If the employees are satisfied and happy with their job and working condition then they will give their best for the improvement of an organization. Happy and satisfied employees always put more efforts for the organizational achievements and stay loyal to the company. Job satisfaction is directly related to the productivity... ( The term employee satisfaction is basically used to describe either employees are happy and contented or working conditions are meeting their needs and expectations. (Heath, 2006). Many factors are contributing towards the employee satisfaction with in the workplace like salary, rewards, promotions, incentives etc. These are the things which create the sense of belongingness in the employees towards their organization and they realized that they are bringing success in the organization. (Sundar, 2006). The success of any organization depends upon its members so; if the members are happy with their jobs and they are rewarded for their work then they will ultimately give their best to the organization. Satisfaction also leads towards concentrating on the work. Foster (Harris et al, 2007) studied the impact of social support on employee satisfaction and job tenure. Social support has been defined as the "actions of others that are either helpful or indented to be helpful" They analyzed the impact of career mentoring and task support on job satisfaction and leadership style and task support on employee tenure and accounted Seventeen percent of the variance in job satisfaction and Nine percent of the variance in job tenure. (Harris et al, 2007). Similarly ... ...have demonstrated the importance of pay, work organization and work condition in shaping job satisfaction (Cohen and Bailey, 1997) Workplace environment is a concept, which has been operationalized by several researchers using different variables to measure it ( Williamson, 2007 ) also analyzed the extent to which the individual perceive the workplace environment as fulfilling their intrinsic, extrinsic and social needs and their reason of staying with the organization. He conducted his research and information technology organization in united state. He analyzes the impact of over all rewards on employee commitment and turnover in the organization. He concluded that if the employees are provided high level of organizational support they are highly satisfied and show the high level of commitment towards their organization and low turnover rate. (Williamson, 2007)

Sunday, January 12, 2020

How Are Dreams Presented in of Mice and Men? Essay

During the 1930’s in America, at the time of the Great Depression, John Steinbeck, an ordinary migrant worker wrote perhaps the shortest but well known novel – Of Mice And Men. I think Steinbeck was influenced by the poem â€Å"To A Mouse†, because the novel and poem are slightly alike. They both have dreams and determination but in the end, both are destroyed. In the novel, Steinbeck shows us that dreams are futile. You only have the dream because you are being optimistic and having a dream might make life seem easier for you. But if your dream is destroyed, then life seems difficult and meaningless. George and Lennie’s dream to own a ranch during the Great Depression seemed like a typical, futile American Dream of the migrant workers. â€Å"Guys like us, that work on ranches, are the loneliest guys in the world. They ain’t got nothing to look ahead to. With us ain’t like that. We got a future.† But the closer Lennie and George came to achieving their dream, everything was suddenly lost – â€Å"the beak swallowed the little snake while its’ tail waved frantically†. This sentence shows us that things will suddenly change and the outcome of plans are not going to be what they were expected to be. The setting of the last and first chapters of the novel are exactly the same, but the sentence â€Å"the beak swallowed the little snake while its’ tail waved frantically† is seen as a warning by the reader that something unexpected is going to occur. â€Å"Suddenly Lennie appeared out of the brush, and he came as silently as a creeping bear moves.† This sentence indicates a change of Lennie’s behavior, which is shown using anthropomorphism, makes us think that something is going to happen and the tension starts to rise because Lennie usually moves and is described as a â€Å"calm, big bear†. Lennie’s actions make the read er imagine Lennie as being big, cute, cuddly and harmless – â€Å"he walked heavily, dragging his feet a little, the way a bear drags his paws†. Steinbeck set the last chapter in the late afternoon when â€Å"already the sun had left the valley to go climbing up the slopes of the Gabilan mountains, and the hilltops were rosy in the sun†. He set the chapter at that particular time of the day because the day is coming to an end at that point, neither in the evening nor night because the day would have come to an end by then. He is telling us that as the day ends, the dream ends as well due to the death of Lennie by George’s love for Lennie. The dream of Curley’s wife was to be in the movies. â€Å"If I’d went, I wouldn’t be livin’ like this, you bet†. The reason Curley’s wife does not fulfill her dream to become an actress was because she met a producer who said â€Å"he was gonna put me in the movies. Says I was a natural†. He takes an advantage of her naivety and tricks her by convincing her that â€Å"he was gonna write to me about it†. But never did – â€Å"I never got that letter†. Because of her anger on her mother who she thought stole the letter – â€Å"I always thought my ol’ lady stole it. I ast her if she stole it, to o, an’ she says no†- and despondency she married Curley without even loving him just to revenge on her mother – â€Å"So I married Curley. Well, I ain’t told this to nobody before. Maybe I oughtn’ to. I don’ like Curley. He ain’t a nice fella†. Steinbeck tells the reader through this novel that women were treated as personal possessions and as providers for mans needs during those times. Throughout the novel, all women characters are presented as either a possession or provider. For example: even thought Lennie’s aunt Clara isn’t present in the novel as a character, she is described as a provider for Lennie’s needs – â€Å"That was your own Aunt Clara. An’ she stopped givin’ ‘em to ya. Your Aunt Clara give you a rubber mouse and you wouldn’t have nothing to do with it†- supports my point. Another example is seen with Curley’s wife who is shown as a personal possession to Curley – â€Å"’Any you guys seen my wife?’ he demanded†. Steinbeck tells the reader via this sentence that Curley is not looking after his wife as he should be and does not spend time with her considering that she is the onl y women on the ranch surrounded by men who see her as â€Å"jail bait†. Curley’s wife only seeks company, but as she is a young, flirtatious and beautiful woman – â€Å"She had full, rouged lips and wide-spaced eyes, heavily made up. Her finger nails were red† – the men fear her as they think she will get them in trouble. Also in the sentence – â€Å"Her finger nails were red†- the finger nails are red colour and red is seen as danger, meaning that it is dangerous to get involved with Curley’s wife. The quotes – â€Å"What’s the matter with me? Ain’t I got a right to talk to nobody? Whatta they think I am, anyways? I don’t know why I can’t talk to you. I ain’t doing no harm to you† and â€Å"Well, George says you’ll get us in a mess.† And â€Å"What kinda harm am I doin’ to you?† support my point. The sentence â€Å"Seems like they ain’t none of them cares how I gotta live† tells the reader that no one cared about wo men at those times. And also the fact that Curley’s wife does not have a name, but is only referred to as â€Å"Curley’s wife† and that Slim’s dog is given a name – â€Å"Lulu† – shows the reader that dogs were treated better than women at those times. The failure of Curley’s wife’s dream leads to her death, which also takes place in late afternoon, as the days ends so does her life. John Steinbeck tells us through this cyclical novel that dreams are futile. The closer the characters got to achieving their dreams, they suddenly lost them unexpectedly. â€Å"The beak swallowed the little snake while its’ tail waved frantically† tells the reader that the death of the snake was sudden and unexpected in the same setting as the first chapter. The dream was first mentioned in the same place and at the same time in the first chapter and it is mentioned again at the same time and place in the last chapter. By making the same setting in the first and last chapter cyclical and mentioning the dream in both chapters, Steinbeck tells us that as the day ends, the dream ends. And that whatever happened in between was futile. Therefore, John Steinbeck tells us that everyone had the American Dream to make life worth living, but society would let only few achieve it during the Great Depression of the 1930’s America.

Friday, January 3, 2020

A Literary Piece Of The Bible Essay - 2396 Words

As a literary piece, the Bible contains a range of limitations such as the absence of details, lack of character development, and extensive dialogue. Therefore, re-enacting biblical accounts on stage provides medieval playwrights with the opportunity to extend their creativity and include details which would have typically derived from popular folklore and tradition. This contributes to the performative element of the pageants through altering the biblical content to produce a dramatic narrative. It is important to take this into consideration when comparing the differences and similarities in approach between the vernacular Mystery Plays and Genesis, as the differences outweigh the latter. The main point of contention between Genesis and the York play is the stylistic approach. Genesis as a piece of literature is concise, unified, didactic, and stands as the Christian representative of the singular truth. On the other end of the literary spectrum, the York pageant– performed to combine both religious and entertainment purposes - contains a stronger element of interiority, multiplicity, and disunity, due to its complex nature. The York play offers a more empathetic, interior, characterisation of Adam and Eve as not entirely perfected religious figures, but instead as relatable characters full of emotions and weaknesses, presented in a more intimate account. Arguably, due to this performative element, the dynamics of the York play are unconventional in comparison to itsShow MoreRelatedThe Epic Of Gilgamesh And The Odyssey1487 Words   |  6 PagesSymbols are often used in literary works as a way to represent complex ideas. Water is a great example of a symbol that was often used in ancient literary pieces. It is regularly used to represent not only birth but also death. It is the very essence of water that makes it so significant. 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